Published by Childbirth Graphics, 2010
REFERENCES FOR NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL METHODS OF PAIN RELIEF
GENERAL DISCUSSIONS OF PAIN IN LABOR
Lally JE, Murtagh MJ, Macphail S, Thomson R. More in hope than expectation: a systematic review of women’s expectations and experience of pain relief in labour. BMC Med 2008; 6:7.
Lowe N. The nature of labor pain. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186:S16.
Smith CA, Collins CT, Cyna AM, Crowther CA. Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006 :CD003521.
DeClercq ER, Sakala C, Corry MP, Applebaum S. Listening to Mothers II: Report of the Second National Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences. Childbirth Connection, New York 2006.
Simkin P, Whalley J, Keppler A, Bolding A, Durham J. Chapters 10 & 11. In: Pregnancy, Childbirth, and the Newborn: the complete guide, 4th ed. Meadowbrook Press, New York 2010.
BATHS AND SHOWERS
Simkin P, O’Hara M. Nonpharmacologic relief of pain during labor: Systematic reviews of five methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186:S131.
Cluett E, Pickering R, Getliffe K, Saunders N. Randomized controlled trial of labouring in water compared with standard of augmentation of dystocia in first stage of labour. BMJ 2004; 328:314.
STERILE WATER INJECTIONS
Labrecque M, Nouwen A, Bergeron M, Rancourt JF. A randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic approaches for relief of low back pain during labor. J Fam Pract 1999; 48:259.
Martensson L, Wallin G. Labour pain treated with cutaneous injections of sterile water: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106:633.
Reynolds JL. Practice tips. Intracutaneous sterile water injections for low back pain during labour. Can Fam Physician 1998; 44:2391.
Martensson L, Nyberg K, Wallin G. Subcutaneous versus intracutaneous injections of sterile water for labour analgesia: a comparison of perceived pain during administration. BJOG 2000; 107:1248.
Bahasadri S, Ahmadi-Abhari S, Dehghani-Nik M, Habibi GR. Subcutaneous sterile water injection for labour pain: a randomised controlled trial. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2006; 46: 102.
Ader L, Hansson B, Wallin G. Parturition pain treated by intracutaneous injections of sterile water. Pain 1990; 41:133.
Wiruchpongsanon P. Relief of low back labor pain by using intracutaneous injections of sterile water: a randomized clinical trial. J Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89:571.
Trolle B, Moller M, Kronborg H, Thomsen S. The effect of sterile water blocks on low back labor pain. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 164:1277.
Martensson L, Stener-Victorin E, Wallin G. Acupuncture versus subcutaneous injections of sterile water as treatment for labour pain. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2008; 87: 171.
Martensson L, Wallin G. Sterile water injections as treatment for low-back pain during labour: a review. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol2008; 48:369.
TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION
Carroll D, Tramer M, McQuay H, Nye B, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in labour pain: A systematic review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104:169.
Kaplan B, Rabinerson D, Lurie S, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for adjuvant pain-relief during labor and delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1998; 60:251.
Chao AS, Chao A, Wang TH, et al. Pain relief by applying transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on acupuncture points during the first stage of labor: a randomized double-blind placebocontrolled
trial. Pain 2007; 127:214.
Tsen, LC, Thomas, J, Segal, S, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation does not augment epidural labor analgesia. J Clin Anesth 2001; 13:571.
Tsen LC, Thomas J, Segal S, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation does not augment combined spinal epidural labour analgesia. Can J Anaesth 2000; 47:38.
Thomas IL, Tyle V, Webster J, Neilson A. An evaluation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief in labour. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1988; 28: 182.
Bundsen P, Peterson LE, Selstam U. Pain relief in labor by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. A prospective matched study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1981; 60:459.
TOUCH, MASSAGE, AND PRESSURE
Tappan F, Benjamin P. Tappan’s Book of Healing Massage Techniques: Classic, Holistic, and Emerging Methods, 3rd Ed, Appleton & Lange: Stamford, Connecticut 1998.
Sommer P. Obstetrical patients’ anxiety during transition of labor and the nursing intervention of touch [doctoral dissertation]. Texas Women’s University, Dallas 1979.
Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Taylor S, et al. Labor pain is reduced by massage therapy. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 18:286.
Chang MY, Wang SY, Chen CH. Effects of massage on pain and anxiety during labour: a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan. J Adv Nurs 2002; 38:68.
Chang MY, Chen CH, Huang KF. A comparison of massage effects on labor pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. J Nurs Res 2006; 14:190.
HEAT AND COLD
POSITIONS AND MOVEMENT
Atwood RJ. Parturitional posture and related birth behavior. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Supp1 1976; 57:1.
Englemann, G. Labor Among Primitive Peoples, Chambers & Co, st. Louis 1882. (Republished AMS, New York 1977).
Carlson JM, Diehl JA, Sachtleben-Murray M, et al. Maternal position during parturition in normal labor. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 68:443.
Rossi MA, Lindell SG. Maternal positions and pushing techniques in a nonprescriptive environment. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 1986; 15:203.
Michel SC, Rake A, Treiber K, et al. MR obstetric pelvimetry: effect of birthing position on pelvic bony dimensions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002; 179: 1063.
Adachi K, Shimada M, Usui A. The relationship between the parturient’s positions and perceptions of labor pain intensity. Nurs Res 2003; 52:47.
Gupta J, Hofmeyr G. Position for women during second stage of labour (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK 2004.
Ragnar I, Altman D, Tyden T, Olsson, SE. Comparison of the maternal experience and duration of labour in two upright delivery positions–a randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2006; 113: 165.
Simkin P, Whalley J, Keppler A, Bolding A, Durham J. Chapter 11. In: Pregnancy, Childbirth, and the Newborn: the complete guide, 4th ed. Meadowbrook Press, New York 2010.
Simkin P. Chapter 4. In: The Birth Partner: A Complete Guide to Childbirth for Dads, Doulas, and All Other Labor Companions, 3rd ed. Harvard Common Press, Boston 2007.
ACUPUNCTURE AND ACUPRESSURE
Nesheim BL, Kinge R, Berg B, et al. Acupuncture during labor can reduce the use of meperidine: a controlled clinical study. Clin J Pain 2003; 19:187.
RELAXATION AND BREATHING
Humenick S, Shrock P, Libresco M. Relaxation. In: Childbirth Education: Practice, Research and Theory, 2nd Ed, F Nichols and S H~menick (Eds), WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia 2000.
Nichols F. Paced breathing techniques. In: Childbirth Education: Practice, Research and Theory, 2nd Ed, F Nichols and S Humenick (Eds), WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia 2000.
Wraight A. Coping with pain. In: Pain and its Relief in Childbirth, Chamberlain G, Wraight A, Steer P (Eds). Churchill Livingstone, London 1993.
Mantle F. The role of hypnosis in pregnancy and childbirth. Chapter 10 in Complementary Therapies for Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2nd Ed, D Tiran and S Mack (Eds). Balliere Tindall, New York 2000.
Ketterhagen D, VandeVusse L, Berner MA. Self-hypnosis: alternative anesthesia for childbirth. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2002; 27:335.
EMOTIONAL SUPPORT/DOULA CARE
Simkin P, O’Hara MA. Nonpharmacologic relief of pain during labor: systematic reviews of five methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186:S131-59.
Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr GJ, Sakala C. Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003766. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003766.pub2
ENVIRONMENT FOR BIRTH/MUSIC
Hodnett ED, Downe S, Edwards N, Walsh D. Home-like versus conventional institutional settings for birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; CD000012.
Cepeda MS, Carr DB, Lau J, Alvarez H. Music for pain relief. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; CD004843. Browning, CA. Using music during childbirth. Birth 2000; 27:272.
Simkin P. Psychologic and other nonpharmacologic techniques. In: Principles and Practice of Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia, 2nd Ed, Bonica, J, McDonald, J (Eds), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1995.
DiFranco J. Relaxation: Music. In: Childbirth Education: Practice, Research and Theory, 2nd Ed, F Nichols and S Humenick (Eds), WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia 2000.
Phumdoung S, Good M. Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain. Pain Manag Nurs 2003; 4:54.
Geden EA, Lower M, Beattie S, Beck N. Effects of music and imagery on physiologic and self-report of analogued labor pain. Nurs Res 1989; 38:37.
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